What is Geology?

Geology is the study of the materials of the earth’s rocky framework, the geological processes by means of which changes on those materials occur on the earth surface and the succession or history of these changes.

Two Main Types of Geology

Geology is a very broad field that can be divided into many more specific branches.

Typically, geology is divided into two categories:

  • Physical geology.
  • Historical geology.

Physical Geology

Physical geology is the study of the solid Earth and the processes that change the physical landscape of the planet. It deals with the study of the physical features of the earth and the processes acting on them which includes features like: Volcanoes, earthquakes, rocks, mountains and the oceans etc.

Historical Geology

Historical geology is the study of the history of the earth. Historical geologists focus on what’s happened to Earth since its formation. They also study the changes in life throughout time. In historical geology, you essentially get to travel back in time to the formation of the earth and move forward through time, witnessing the changes in Earth itself and the life on it.

Aim of Geology

• Geology explains the mode of origin of materials on the earth’s surface.
• Geology deciphers and elucidates evolution and history of past life in rocks in form of fossils.

The Relationship between Geology and other Sciences

Relationship between Geology and other Disciplines

Geology is not an isolated Course of study but it falls upon the help of many other sciences so as to help it in the work of detection and provision of answers to many problems which face it.

Of all sciences, Physics is the most fundamental, for it deals with the manifestation of energy with the nature and properties of matter in their most general aspects. Through geophysics, geology utilities physical principles to better understand force, energy, matter and their behaviour in and on the earth surface.
Chemistry is particularly concerned with the composition terms of atoms and molecules, elements and compound. Through geochemistry, geology reaches out to chemistry for aid when the composition of earth’s materials (rocks and minerals) come into play.
Biology is the science of living matter it studies life and living organism including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, etc. Through Palaeontology, geology gains in-depth knowledge in the nature ( Physical structures and environments where they existed) of ancient organisms that now exists as fossils.
Astronomy claims the unfathomable universe of stars and nebulae as it’s field of study. It is concerned with the movement of matter in space on a celestial scale. Through Cosmology, geology obtains knowledge of how the earth came to be and how it has evolved from inception till this present day.

Importance of Geology

• Geology leads to the understanding of the origin, nature, and structure of the earth.
• Geology helps to explain the varied nature of landscapes that exist.
• Geology is important in the exploration and management of water resources, petroleum resources, solid mineral resources, etc.
• Geology is important in the provision of quality construction materials.
• Geology is important in the study of soil.
• Geologist help engineers forestall construction hazards.


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